# + The formula to calculate with dark matter (db) particles.

Amsterdam, May 2023

The Smit hypothesis provides a new principle and a new view on an particle beyond the Standard Model. Smit uniquely manages to give solid answers to long-standing dark matter questions posed by many physicists. Smit has a unique fresh approach to what dark matter is.

Smit also enables scientists to calculate with dark matter(db) particles by his formula: sqrt(x^2+y^2+z^2) × Kr = 1  , it expresses the relatively reduced extent of curvature of spacetime surrounding the particle.

His theory is brand new and unique to the world at this very moment. G J Smit is relieved for he did not expect his research to be finished before his death. Smit's (and dr. Van der Schoot †) work is never officially published.

## Four calculated unique perspectives on dark matter :

### New: 1. There is a particle that has no spatial dimensions (no length, no width and no height).

Following his theory, Smit gave this dimensionally basic particle its logical name: 'db particle'.

The Smit hypothesis says: 'Dark matter' are db particles and they are our most basic particles. They have no spatial dimensions (no length, width, or height). The distance between the db particles varies by movements relative to each other. The particle never touches. When you come nearer to this particle, the curvature will go up to infinity on the x,y,z axes. Simplified his formula is: 'curvature = 1/distance'. (The precise formula is below.)

The direction of movement is influenced by one another, in accordance with mathematical laws. Their movement paths are optically influenced for the outside observer by the curvatures of spacetime caused by the particles themselves. (See his explanatory graphics underneath this website.) As a result, when relative space around a db particle becomes smaller, time slows down, while the particles are approaching each other.  So a db particle is always moving in spacetime

### New: 2. Db particles have only one property: An infinite curvature at its core.

According to the Smit hypothesis db particles have an infinate curvature as their only property. A change that one of the particles experiences is instantaneously experienced by its partner-db particle(s), for they are mutually entangled by curvatures. Basically, the mutual entanglement of the particles is caused by curvatures, and they constantly interact with each other. Like a mutual 'attraction'. Db particles constantly 'attract' each other, creating curled power chains with electromagnetic fields all around. These curled power chains can easily be observed with a live coil. Here, the electromagnetic field around the current-carrying wires is caused by the suction of these particles. The 'attracting' particles create a twisted chain that generates a current due to their mutual 'attraction', causing electromagnetic fields all around.

### New: 3. Db particles are the basics of neutrons, electrons, protons, and quarks.

Smit: Neutrons, electrons, protons, and quarks are all composed out of multiple db particles. The db particle itself however is a singular particle. Also, singular in respect of singularity.  Each db particle is a singularity on itself. Other particles in our universe are a combination of multiple singularities.

Db praticles exist below Heisenberg's observation limit. The Smit hypothesis states that db particles are everywhere. About 95% of the mass of the universe consists out of db particles. When the db particles are clumped together, or rather interacted together, they form wunderful phenomena that at some point exceed the limit of observation. Their impact is visible in the beautiful swirls in our everyday life: Swirling smoke from a chimney, galaxies, spinning draining water into your sink, a tornado, etc.

### New: 4. Db particles behave just like a black hole without dimensions.

Smit hypothesis says that the singular db particle has a property that is almost similar to a black hole. The db particle has a black hole like curvature imprint on its surrounding spacetime. The difference is that the db particle has no spatial dimensions (length, width, height) and a black hole does. The db particle is a singularity, the curvature of the particle is infinite (or so to say, spacetime is infinitely bent) on the location of the db particle.

The db particle (dark matter) formula stated in this article, describes the relatively reduced extent of curvature of spacetime surrounding the db particle. As the distance to the particle enlarges, the curvature of space will reduce and time is running faster. The curvature of space on the location of the particle is infinite, while time stands still on the location of the db particle.

### Solved: The unification of the fundamental forces

Smit: 'All the observed forces have their origin in the character of a singular db particle. The observed forces (weak, strong, electric) are a very complex sum of circling movements that arise when multiple db particles get into an interaction with each other. Gravitation is pure space curvature. The theory does not defy the theories of general relativity and quantum mechanics. It lays down a deeper, more fundamental explanation for the observed forces and particles, in sync with observations in various fields of physics as described in this article.'

The Smit hypothesis proves that electromagnetic forces & strong/weak nuclear forces AND gravitational forces can all be calculated with one formula.

### The dark matter formula of the Smit hypothesis:

sqrt(x^2+y^2+z^2) × Kr = 1

( In the formula, Kr is curvature [m-1], and 'x, y, z' are coordinates in spacetime [m].

The distance is always greater than zero. )

Smit said: 'Just try the formula out, and you will notice that your observations can be reconciled on a macro level as well as micro level.'

### Solved: The 4 missing links in quantum mechanics

Why is it, that Quantum Mechanics cannot be universally applied? It seems a reasonable expectation that the atoms in the universe obey the laws of physics. When you look more closely at the current quantum mechanics foundation, quantum mechanics cannot describe and explain four essential questions:

Smit solves these 4 questions perfectly via the 5 assumptions underneath:

### The five basic db particle assumptions of the Smit hypothesis:

Assumption 1: Our smallest particle is a zero point! (so without length, width or height; a db particle).

The assumption is curvature = 1/distance. Therefor, at this zero point, space curvature is infinite. The greater the distance to this zero point, the less curvature of space. Let’s assume that there are infinitely many of these smallest particles in an infinite three-dimensional space. The particles are always moving at any possible relative speed in respect to each other. It gets interesting when two db particles fall into each other's curvature. Then they will start to move as a gravitational couple in a spiral form for the outside observer. These two particles then form an electromagnetic wave. (A two-particle db couple is a photon.) This explains why a photon is both a particle and a wave.

See short explanatory Graph 1 underneath.

Assumption 2: Speed of light is not a constant, but depends on the degree of space curvature in which it travels.

Consider a container of water where the speed of light is lower. Because the container is filled with water, the space curvature is stronger than in vacuum.

See short explanatory Graph 2 underneath.

Assumption 3: An electron is similar to a photon, with the difference that is has an extra internal movement compared to a photon as seen to the outside observer.

An electron measured in this curved space will appear to have a greater mass/energy compared to an electromagnetic particle not orbiting an atomic nucleus. These electrons follow discrete orbits around an atomic nucleus because they are forced to stay in a stable orbit by the space curvature of the 0-point particles in the atomic nucleus. This is a fusion effect.

Assumption 4: Gravity & strong nuclear force & weak nuclear force & electromagnetic force are all variations of complex motions of 0-point particles around and in each other's orbits.

All this takes place below Heisenberg's observation limit, since the smallest measurement method we have involves a two 0-point particle couple. So that means this model is only mathematically provable because more complex couples of 0-point particles are above Heisenberg's observation limit.

See short explanatory Graph 3 underneath.

Assumption 5: Quarks form an even more complex form of db-particle couple.

Traditionally said: A proton consists out of three quarks.

New insight: A neutron consists out of four quarks (2 quarks up, 2 quarks down).

(See Smit's article 'Metric Science')

### The universe is NOT expanding.

According to the Smit hypothesis there never was a Big Bang and the universe is not expanding.

Latest update 2023: In January 2023 the James Webb Telescope looked back in all the 13.8 billion years passed to look at the supposed ‘Big Bang’ in the universe. But the galaxies seen were exactly the same, with exactly the same particle distribution as we can see here in our present time in our local universe. There is no evidence for an expanding universe.

The cosmic redshift as in January 2023 observed by the James Webb Telescope acknowledges that. This follows exactly the Smit theory about the implications of the db particle. Cosmic redshift is there due to electromagnetic particles (e.g. photons) falling apart; a gravitational process. The oldest light is the reddest, the most long ago and travelled the longest distance before 'two dark matter particles get out of their mutual spiraling form'. Because of its median curvature, the universe exists infinitely long and probably will exist infinitely long. The universe is infinite and is not expanding.

### Where can I find in-depth information on the db particles theory?

The article 'Metric Science' by Gerhard Jan Smit and Jelle Ebel van der Schoot † goes deeper into the dimensional basic theory. The article first describes an outline of the observed conflicts within quantum mechanics. After that, the theory of the dimensional basic will be described in depth, followed by the consequences for the photon, the electron, the quarks, the protons, neutrons, the more complex particles, the nature of electromagnetic fields and some cosmology.

Smit writes: " The curvature of space on the location of the db particle is infinite, while time stands still on the location of the db particle. The db particle behaves like a black hole without dimensions. The db formula describes the relatively reduced extent of curvature of space/time surrounding the db particle. The curvature of space will reduce and time is running faster as the distance to the db particle enlarges." This makes it a unique particle with fascinating possibilities. Perhaps star-travel through space?

Smit: Follow your dreams! Just start to juggle with the formula and R&D with db particles / dark matter) and discover new elements. Aim for the seemingly unreachable and realize it.

### Here is the db particle formula  in software code:

For your convenience Smit has converted the db particle formula into 'C language' software for an easy flying start. There are 3 programmes, 1. good 2. better 3. best:

Programme 1 'dbmove'

With this programme, Smit shows in old-fashioned Newtonian gravity fashion how particles interact in a short time span. Because Smit wrote this programme, he was able to write programme 2. But programme 1 can only calculate it with 30 particles.

Link to programme-code 1 on Smit's site

Programme 2 'newton' is an evolution of programme 1.

Here, Smit makes the db particles interact (up to 250 simultaneously) according to Newton mechanics, such as E=½MV² , (acceleration). Smit calculates across the 3 space axes.

This works just like the 1st programme, but now with different mathematical formulas to arrive at a result more close to reality. This programme continues to work even when inputting extremely large numbers of db's, with the universe as an open model.

On Smit's site, you can see this programme being run live in a magnifying glass. It is 1 loop in which 250 parameters are calculated simultaneously.

P.s. With this programme Smit is the first to solve a long lasting science problem; 'the more than two bodies problem'.

Code to calculate movements of multiple db's in a three-dimensional cube:

file=fopen(b_name,"w");

fprintf(file, "%d %d %f %f %f %f", step, particle, r_o, r_n, t_frag, border);

for(t1=0;t1<particle;t1++)

fprintf(file, " %f %f %f", x3[t1][1], y3[t1][1], z3[t1][1]);

// Calculate coördinates.

for(t1=0;t1<step;t1++)

{ for(t2=0;t2<particle;t2++)

{ x3[t2][3]=0;

y3[t2][3]=0;

z3[t2][3]=0;

}

for(t2=0;t2<particle;t2++)

{ x3[t2][2]=x3[t2][1]-x3[t2][0];

y3[t2][2]=y3[t2][1]-y3[t2][0];

z3[t2][2]=z3[t2][1]-z3[t2][0];

for(t3=t2;t3<particle;t3++)

{ fzx=x3[t3][1]-x3[t2][1];

fzy=y3[t3][1]-y3[t2][1];

fzz=z3[t3][1]-z3[t2][1];

if(fzx!=0) { fzx=1/fzx; x3[t2][3]=x3[t2][3]+fzx;

x3[t3][3]=x3[t3][3]-fzx; }

if(fzy!=0) { fzy=1/fzy; y3[t2][3]=y3[t2][3]+fzy;

y3[t3][3]=y3[t3][3]-fzy; }

if(fzz!=0) { fzz=1/fzz; z3[t2][3]=z3[t2][3]+fzz;

z3[t3][3]=z3[t3][3]-fzz; }

}

x3[t2][0]=x3[t2][1];

y3[t2][0]=y3[t2][1];

z3[t2][0]=z3[t2][1];

x3[t2][1]=x3[t2][0]+x3[t2][2]+x3[t2][3];

y3[t2][1]=y3[t2][0]+y3[t2][2]+y3[t2][3];

z3[t2][1]=z3[t2][0]+z3[t2][2]+z3[t2][3];

}

for(t2=0;t2<particle;t2++)

fprintf(file, " %f %f %f", x3[t2][1], y3[t2][1], z3[t2][1]);

putchar(13); printf("%d",t1+1);

}

fclose(file);

Link to programme-code 2 on Smit's site

Programme 3 'einstein'

This programme is about curved spacetime, as discussed in the db model. With this programme, Smit has programmed a picture of a piece of spacetime in which you can see the curvature of the db. The locations of the db's can be entered into it manually.

Programme 2 is only a rough approximation of what a video version of programme 3 should look like, as it does not yet include the delay due to time.

Herewith a very brief but precise insight in 'the code loop of the db formula':

vkxyz=fopen(tname,"wb");

// Calculate curvature strengths per coordinate per particle in cube.

for(x=-range;x<range;x+=step)

{ gotoxy(14,19); printf(": %5.3f percent",x/(2*range)*100+50);

for(y=-range;y<range;y+=step)

{ for(z=-range;z<range;z+=step)

{ ktot=0; xtot=0; ytot=0; ztot=0;

for(dcount=0;dcount<particle;dcount++)

{ afx=(x-xd[dcount])*(x-xd[dcount]); // Distance per x,y,z axis.

afy=(y-yd[dcount])*(y-yd[dcount]);

afz=(z-zd[dcount])*(z-zd[dcount]);

afs=sqrt(afx+afy+afz);        // Distance coordinate to particle.

if(afs!=0) curvature=1/(afs*afs); else curvature=1000000;  // Determining curvature strength.

// Determine coordinates for representation of visual space by curvature strength.

ktot+=curvature;

xtot+=(x-xd[dcount])/curvature;

ytot+=(y-yd[dcount])/curvature;

ztot+=(z-zd[dcount])/curvature;

}

fprintf(vkxyz,"%f %f %f %f ",ktot,xtot,ytot,ztot);

}

}

if(kbhit()!=0)

{ if(getch()==27) x=range;

}

}

fclose(vkxyz);

Link to programme-code 3 on Smit's site

Smit drawings:

Graph 1. In the underneath graph, you can see two db particles forming a photon. (TOE.)

Energy that we can observe from an electromagnetic particle is the additional resultant curvature, which follows from the addition of the curvature values of the two-particle torque.  (A two-dimensional picture of a three-dimensional event.)

Graph 2. Underneath, the graph explains the internal movement of a photon. (TOE.)

An electromagnetic particle will never have a perfect circular shape, but a more outward spiral shape. As a result, each electromagnetic particle 'ages'. We see this phenomenon when we look at an electromagnetic particle that has travelled a very long distance.

Also, a good example is the redshift we observe in stars that are very far away from the observer. Cosmic background radiation is formed by the mutual interaction of these db particles. Think of cosmic redshift as a gravitational redshift.

Graph 3. The next three graphs explain why photons deviate from its tracks when going through stronger curvature fields nearby.

Electromagnetic radiation that has to pass through a hole smaller than the wavelength, will behave as a new point source, because the curvature of the surrounding material will change the trajectory of all electromagnetic particles in such a way that it will be deflected back in all directions.

Graph 3a: In the underneath graph, electromagnetic radiation that has to pass through a hole smaller than the wavelength.

Electromagnetic radiation that has to pass through a hole smaller than the wavelength get a trajectory deflection of all electromagnetic particles. It will behave as a new point source, because the curvature of the surrounding material will change the trajectory of all electromagnetic particles in such a way that it will be deflected back in all directions.

Graph 3b: The underneath graph shows the hole is as large as the wavelength

If the hole is as large as the wavelength, then the bending will only partially occur, and most of the electromagnetic particles will continue straight. Only at the edges, curved trajectories will be observable.

Graph 3c: In the underneath graph, the hole is larger than the wavelength.

Whenever the hole is larger than the wavelength, the electromagnetic particles will continue straight ahead unimpeded.

And do check out the second tab, with interesting answers to dark matter particles FAQ of readers.